They are bony fish without the scales. While their relatives swim horizontally, seahorses swim upright, and very poorly, with the help of their dorsal and pectoral fins. They are called “the chameleons of the sea” as they can change color as a response to many different environmental factors including: stress (they may darken), social interactions (their colors often brighten during courtship), temperature, disease, diet and also to blend with their immediate surroundings.
To protect themselves from predators, octopuses will hide, do a fast escape, squirt ink, amputate their own limbs or simply camouflage. Like its relative, the cuttlefish, an octopus disguise is made possible by pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells which can also be used to communicate with family members. To achieve greater camouflage, octopuses can use their skin muscles to transform the texture of their mantle to make them obtain the spiky appearance of a seaweed, or the scraggly, bumpy texture of a rock.
Peron’s Tree Frog
Golden Tortoise Beetle